Before undergoing infertility testing, be aware that a certain amount of commitment is required. Your doctor or clinic will need to determine what your sexual habits are and may make recommendations about how you may need to change those habits. The tests and periods of trial and error may extend over several months. In about one-third of infertile couples, no specific cause is found (unexplained infertility).
Evaluation is expensive and in some cases involves uncomfortable procedures, and the expenses may not be reimbursed by many medical plans. Finally, there’s no guarantee — even after all the testing and counseling — that conception will occur.
Tests for men
For a man to be fertile, the testicles must produce enough healthy sperm, and the sperm must be ejaculated effectively into the woman’s vagina. Tests for male infertility attempt to determine whether any of these processes are impaired.
- General physical examination. This includes examination of your genitals and questions concerning your medical history, illnesses and disabilities, medications, and sexual habits.
- Semen analysis. This is a very important test for the male partner. Your doctor may ask for one or more semen specimens. Semen is generally obtained by masturbating or by interrupting intercourse and ejaculating your semen into a clean container. A laboratory analyzes your semen specimen for quantity, color, and presence of infections or blood.
- Hormone testing. A blood test to determine the level of testosterone and other male hormones is common.
- Transrectal and scrotal ultrasound. Ultrasound can help your doctor look for evidence of conditions such as retrograde ejaculation and ejaculatory duct obstruction.
Tests for women
For a woman to be fertile, the ovaries must release healthy eggs regularly, and her reproductive tract must allow the eggs and sperm to pass into her fallopian tubes to become fertilized by a sperm. Her reproductive organs must be healthy and functional.
After your doctor asks questions regarding your health history, menstrual cycle and sexual habits, you’ll undergo a general physical examination. This includes a regular gynecological examination. Specific fertility tests may include: